The Cash Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability, Learning Organizational Network (CAMEALEON) is an NGO-led network of partners conducting independent research and analysis in support of the World Food Programme’s (WFP) multi-purpose cash (MPC) programme for Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

A new approach to MEAL in multi-purpose cash programming in Lebanon

Established in December 2017, CAMEALEON complements WFP’s existing monitoring and evaluation activities through independent research, learning and recommendations. It is part of a ground-breaking collaboration between donors and agencies trialing a new approach to providing humanitarian aid in line with the Grand Bargain commitments.  As a result of the ongoing civil war in Syria, Lebanon is hosting some 1.5 million Syrian refugees according to the 2021 update of the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan. Protracted displacement, lack of employment opportunities, and a multi-pronged crisis in Lebanon mean that poverty levels of refugee households have increased significantly leading to many refugees being forced to resort to negative coping strategies that are detrimental to their development and wellbeing. The international humanitarian response to the crisis has grown year by year since 2011, during which time cash and food assistance have evolved to represent over a third of the response. Since 2014, MPC assistance has been provided on a monthly basis to targeted Syrian refugee households to help families meet their basic needs. The WFP MPC programme has assisted Syrian refugee households with monthly transfers of unconditional and unrestricted cash to help them meet their basic needs. Beneficiaries receive their transfers on the Red Card, an e-card that can be used withdraw cash assistance from the ATM. The transfer values are calibrated based on the Survival Minimum Expenditure Basket (SMEB) for Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Targeting is done through an econometric model that predicts the socio-economic vulnerability of Syrian refugee families.


CAMEALEON is co-managed by the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), Oxfam and Solidarités International (SI), and involves Lebanese and international partners including academia, think tanks and independent research specialists. CAMEALEON draws on the humanitarian cash experience and operational presence in Lebanon, including in the Bekaa region where the majority of WFP MPC beneficiaries reside. Accountability is at the heart of CAMEALEON’s work. In support of WFP’s ongoing investments and commitment to accountability to affected populations (AAP), CAMEALEON’s research captures refugee experiences, opinions and feedback on the programme to inform programme decision-making and development, and to provide recommendations accordingly. Recognising that MPC in Lebanon is delivered through a harmonised system – the Lebanon One Unified Inter-Organizational System for E-cards (LOUISE) platform – and involves multiple stakeholders, CAMEALEON also contributes to strengthening the wider cash system, as well as national and global learning through knowledge sharing activities. CAMEALEON’s work is governed by a steering committee comprised of WFP and its donors: The Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (UK), European Union Civil Protection and Humanitarian Operations, the EU Madad Trust Fund, the German Federal Foreign Office, and the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.



Project Coordinator

Sara Makka

Research Coordinator

Cynthia Saghir

Social Protection Policy Advisor